Key Characters in Revelation

© by Don Robertson 2024

May the Lord teach us wonderful truths out of His Word. We offer this study for your spiritual blessing and the glory of our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ.

Table of Contents

  • 7 Heads, 7 mountains, 7 kings – 19, 25, 26, 28, 30
  • 8th head – 19
  • 10 Horns – 19, 25, 26, 30
  • 24 Elders – 12
  • 144,000 Jewish Male Witnesses – 15
  • 200 Hundred Million Horsemen – 16
  • A Woman in Labor – 24
  • A Woman Who Rides the Beast – Harlot – Mystery Babylon – 30
  • Angels – 6
  • Antichrist – 25-28
  • Babylon – 30
  • Beast from the Earth – the False Prophet – 29
  • Beast from the Sea – Revived Roman Empire – 25-28
  • Blessed One – 8
  • Bond-servants of the Lord – 5
  • Bride of Christ – 4
  • Child – 24
  • Demons – 6, 26
  • Earth Dwellers – 10, 17
  • False Prophet – 29
  • Four Living Creatures – 13
  • Gentiles (people, nations, rulers) – 19, 28
  • God the Father – 2
  • God, the Holy Spirit – 3
  • Great, Fiery Red Dragon – 24, 25, 26
  • Holy apostles and prophets – 22
  • Israel – 24
  • John, the Apostle – 7
  • Judgments – see under Angels – 6
  • Kings of the earth, merchants, etc. – 21
  • Locusts – 6
  • Lord Jesus Christ – 1
  • Martyrs – 14
  • Mighty Angel – 6
  • Musicians and craftspeople – 23
  • My People – 20
  • My Two Witnesses – 18
  • Overcomers – 11
  • Satan – 24, 25, 26, 28, 29
  • Seven Churches, which are in Asia – 9
  • Theophanies – 6
  • Unrepentant People – 17


  1. The Lord Jesus Christ (Revelation 1:1)
    1. Jesus Christ (Revelation 1:1).
    2. The Faithful Witness (Revelation 1:5).
    3. The firstborn from the dead (Revelation 1:5).
    4. The ruler over the kings of the earth (Revelation 1:5).
    5. He who loved us (Revelation 1:5).
    6. He who…washed us from our sins in His own blood (Revelation 1:5).
    7. He who…made us kings and priests to His God and Father (Revelation 1:6).
    8. The One to whom belong glory and dominion forever and ever (Revelation 1:6).
    9. He who is coming (Revelation 1:7). This verse refers to His Second Coming to the Earth at the end of the Tribulation Period.
      1. The Second Coming (not the Rapture) will be visible.
        1. Every eye will see Him.
        2. Even those who pierced Him.
        3. All the tribes of the Earth.
    10. He is the Alpha and the Omega (Revelation 1:8; 1:11; 21:6; 22:13).
    11. He is the Beginning and the End (Revelation 1:8; 21:6; 22:13).
    12. The One “who is and who was and who is to come” (Revelation 1:8). Also said of God, the Father.
    13. The Almighty; God Almighty (Revelation 1:8, 15:3; 16:14).
    14. Son of Man – His appearance (to John, the Disciple, and Apostle) was “One like the Son of Man” (Revelation 1:12-17; 14:14; cf. Daniel 7:9).
      1. He walked among the seven golden lampstands (7 churches) (Revelation 1:13, 20).
      2. He was clothed in a garment down to the feet (Revelation 1:13; Daniel 10:5).
      3. He was girded about the chest with a golden band (Revelation 1:13; Daniel 10:5).
      4. His head and hair were white like wool, as white as snow (Revelation 1:14; cf. Daniel 7:9).
      5. His eyes were like a flame of fire (Revelation 1:14; 2:18; 19:12; Daniel 10:6).
      6. His feet were like fine brass, as if refined in a furnace (Revelation 1:15; 2:18; Daniel 10:6).
      7. His voice was as the sound of many waters (Revelation 1:15; 14:2; Ezekiel 43:2; Daniel 10:6).
      8. He held seven stars (Angels) in His right hand (Revelation 1:16, 20; 2:1, 8, 12, 18, 3:1, 7, 14).
      9. Out of His mouth went a sharp two-edged sword (Revelation 1:16; 2:12, 16; 19:15; cf. Isaiah 49:2; Hebrews 4:12).
      10. His countenance was like the sun shining in its strength (Revelation 1:16; Matthew 17:2).
    15. He is the First and the Last (Revelation 1:17; 2:8; 22:13; Isaiah 41:4; 44:6; 48:12).
    16. He is the One who lives, and was dead, and is alive forevermore (Revelation 1:18; 2:8; 4:9; 10:6; Romans 6:9).
    17. He has the keys of Hades and of Death (Revelation 1:18).
    18. He walks among the churches and knows them intimately; He commends, rebukes, and rewards (Revelation 2-3).
    19. Son of God (Revelation 2:18).
    20. He who is holy, who is true (Revelation 3:7).
    21. The Amen, the faithful and true Witness (Revelation 3:14), and is called Faithful and True (Revelation 19:11).
    22. The Beginning of the Creation of God (Revelation 3:14).
    23. The One who overcame (Revelation 3:21).
    24. The Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David (Revelation 5:5).
    25. The Lamb (Revelation 5:6-13; 6:1, 16; 7:9, 10, 14, 17; 12:11; 13:8; 14:1, 4, 10; 15:3; 17:14; 19:7, 9; 21:9, 14, 22, 23, 27; 22:1, 3).
    26. The Creator of heaven, the earth, the sea, and all things in them (Revelation 10:6).
    27. Our Lord (who was crucified) (Revelation 11:8; 15:4).
    28. The male Child born to the Woman (Israel) (Revelation 12:4-5).
    29. One who will rule the nations with a rod of iron (Revelation 12:5; cf. Psalm 2:9; Revelation 2:27; 19:15).
    30. He who sat on the cloud and thrust His sickle to reap the earth’s harvest (Revelation 14:14-16).
    31. King of the saints (Revelation 15:3).
    32. The Lord our God (Revelation 19:1).
    33. The One whose judgments are true and righteous (Revelation 19:2).
    34. The Lord God Omnipotent (Revelation 19:6).
    35. The Lord Jesus Christ is coming on a white horse (Revelation 19:11-16).
      1. He is called Faithful and True (Revelation 19:11).
      2. He judges in righteousness (Revelation 19:11).
      3. He makes war in righteousness (Revelation 19:11).
      4. His eyes were like a flame of fire (Revelation 19:12).
      5. He had many crowns on His head (Revelation 19:12).
      6. He had a name written that no one knew except Himself (Revelation 19:12).
      7. He wore a robe dipped in blood (Revelation 19:13).
      8. His name is The Word of God (Revelation 19:13).
      9. His coming is with the armies of heaven (Revelation 19:14, 19).
        1. Clothed in white linen, white and clean (Revelation 19:14).
        2. Following Him on white horses (Revelation 19:14, 19).
        3. There will be tens of thousands of saints with Him (Jude 14-15).
      10. The Battle of Armageddon (Revelation 16:13-16; 19:19-21).
      11. A sharp sword goes out of His mouth to strike the nations (Revelation 19:15, 21).
      12. The Lord is victorious over all enemies (Revelation 19:17-21).
        1. The beast – the Antichrist – is captured (Revelation 19:20).
        2. The False Prophet is captured (Revelation 19:20).
          1. These two are cast alive into the Lake of Fire (Revelation 19:20).
        3. Satan is cast into the Abyss (Revelation 20:1-3).
        4. All the rest are killed with the sword from the Lord (Revelation 19:21).
          1. All the armies gathered at Armageddon (Revelation 19:15, 19-21).
          2. A later judgment of all nations will occur (Matthew 25:31-45).
      13. He will execute judgment on all unbelievers (Jude 14-15).
      14. He will rule the nations with a rod of iron (Revelation 19:15; cf. 2:27; 12:5).
      15. He treads the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God (Revelation 19:15).
        1. Written on His robe and on His thigh is
          1. KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS (Revelation 19:16).
      16. The fulness of the Gentiles is complete (Romans 11:25-27).
      17. The church is seated on the thrones (Revelation 20:4; cf. Daniel 7:9, 22; Matthew 19:28; 1 Corinthians 6:2-3).
      18. The martyrs from the Tribulation Period will be resurrected and reign with Christ (Revelation 20:4).
        1. They shall be priests of God and of Christ (Revelation 20:6).
        2. They shall reign with Him a thousand years (Revelation 20:6).
    36. Faithful and True (Revelation 19:11).
    37. Bridegroom by inference (Revelation 19:7-9).
    38. The Word of God (Revelation 19:13).
    39. King of Kings and Lord of Lords (Revelation 19:16).
    40. He who makes all things new (Revelation 21:5).
    41. He who gives the fountain of the water of life freely to him who thirsts (Revelation 21:6).
    42. He who gives an inheritance to overcomers (Revelation 21:7).
      1. He promises to be their God.
      2. He promises they will be His sons.
    43. He who is coming quickly (Revelation 22:12, 20).
    44. The Lord God of the holy prophets (Revelation 22:6).
    45. The Root and the Offspring of David (Revelation 22:16).
    46. The Bright and Morning Star (Revelation 22:16).
    47. He is Lord Jesus (Revelation 22:20).
  2. God the Father (Revelation 1:1)
    1. God (Revelation 1:1).
      1. Who reveals the future (Revelation 1:1).
      2. Who spoke through His angel (Revelation 1:1).
    2. Source of grace and peace (Revelation 1:4).
    3. His Eternal Existence (Revelation 1:4).
      1. “The One who is and who was and who is to come” (Revelation 1:4). Also said of Jesus Christ.
    4. Is “His (Jesus Christ’s) God and Father” or “My Father (Revelation 1:6; 2:27; 3:5, 21, 14:1).
    5. He is the One who is seated on the throne in heaven (Revelation 4:2-3).
      1. And He appeared
        1. Not in bodily form.
        2. But “like a jasper and a sardius stone” (Revelation 4:3).
    6. “Him who sits on the throne” (Revelation 5:13).
    7. The living God (Revelation 7:2).
    8. The God of heaven (Revelation 11:13).
  3. God, The Holy Spirit (Revelation 1:4)
    1. “The seven Spirits who are before His throne” (Revelation 1:4; 3:1; 4:5; 5:6).
      1. Many believe this refers to the seven attributes of the Spirit of God (cf. Isaiah 11:2-3).
    2. John was “in the Spirit” (Revelation 1:10; 4:2; 17:3; 21:10).
    3. The Spirit speaks to the churches (Revelation 2:7, 11, 17, 29; 3:6, 13, 22).
    4. The Spirit confirms the blessedness of those who die in the Lord (Revelation 14:13).
    5. The Spirit and the bride say, “Come!” (Revelation 22:17).
  4. The Bride of Christ
    1. The true church from Pentecost to the Rapture
      1. The Bride of Christ (Revelation 19:7-9; cf. John 3:28-29; 14:2-3; 2 Corinthians 11:2; Ephesians 5:22-27).
      2. There is some discussion about when the Marriage of the Lord Jesus and His Bride occurs. It is helpful to think of First Century weddings.
        1. The betrothal is a legally binding marriage agreement, and the dowry is paid out of love for the bride.
          1. For the church – He will never leave us or forsake us (Hebrews 13:5).
          2. His precious blood pays for our salvation (Revelation 5:9).
          3. Christ loved the church and gave Himself for her (Ephesians 5:25).
          4. Jesus said, “I will build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it” (Matthew 16:18).
        2. The groom leaves to prepare a place for His bride (cf. John 14: 2-3). She prepares herself for Him.
          1. For the church – Jesus promised to go and prepare a place for us, and “I will come again to receive you to Myself.”
          2. He is still preparing a place – otherwise, He would come for His bride.
          3. And His wife has made herself ready (Revelation 19:7-8; cf. Ephesians 5:26-27, 29).
        3. He returns to claim His bride to take her to His Father’s house. Everything is now ready. She must be prepared at any time.
          1. “In My Father’s house are many mansions” (John 14:2-3).
          2. For the church: the Rapture (1 Thessalonians 4:13-18).
          3. The church longs for His soon return, and the bride says, “Come!” (Revelation 21:17), and “Even so, come Lord Jesus!”
          4. This is still in the future, but He could return anytime.
          5. The marriage takes place in Heaven during the Tribulation Period (Revelation 19:7).
        4. The marriage supper takes place.
          1. The marriage supper likely occurs on Earth during the Millenium and extends for a thousand years (Revelation 21:9).
        5. The final consummation of marriage occurs after the marriage supper and is likely a reference to the Eternal State – Forever and forever.
          1. The New Jerusalem is likened to the bride.
          2. This must refer to the city of the bride, not the actual bride herself (Revelation 21:1-2).
          3. One of the seven “Bowl” angels introduced John to the bride (Revelation 21:9).
          4. The description of New Jerusalem, the new city of the bride (Revelation 21:9-22).
  5. Bond-servants of the Lord
    1. Revelation 1:1; 2:20; 7:3; 11:18; 15:3; 22:3, 6; 19:2.
  6. Angels (Revelation 1:1)
    1. His (God’s) angel(s) (Revelation 1:1).
      1. Who spoke God’s word to John (Revelation 1:1).
      2. His angels (plural) (Revelation 3:5).
      3. This may be the same angel seen in Revelation 22:16.
    2. Seven Angels of the seven churches (Revelation 1:20).
      1. Identified at the beginning of each church (Revelation 2:1, 8, 12, 18; 3:1, 7,14).
      2. Seven Stars, which are seven Angels in His (Jesus’) right hand (Revelation 1:16, 20; 2:1, 8, 12, 18, 3:1, 7, 14).
    3. A strong angel (Revelation 5:2).
      1. Who proclaimed with a loud voice, “Who is worthy to open the scroll and to loose its seal?”
    4. Many angels around the throne.
      1. 10,000 x 10,000 plus 1000s (that number is 100 million, but it is likely a number meant to signify a much larger number.
    5. Four angels (Revelation 7:11).
      1. Standing at the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth (i.e., four directions NWSE).
      2. These angels are the ones who will carry out judgments to harm the earth, the sea, and the trees (Revelation 7:3).
      3. They are told not to harm the earth, sea, or trees until the 144,000 Jewish male witnesses are sealed (Revelation 7:3).
    6. A fifth angel who is from the east (Revelation 7:2).
      1. He is apparently a higher-ranking angel since he gives orders to the four angels (Revelation 7:2-3).
      2. He has the seal of the living God to be applied to the foreheads of the 144,000 male Jewish witnesses.
    7. All the angels stood around the throne… fell on their faces before the throne, and worshiped God (Revelation 7:11).
    8. Seven angels (Revelation 8:2).
      1. They are seven angels who stand before God (Revelation 8:2).
      2. They are given seven trumpets (for the 7 Trumpet Judgments).
      3. They prepared to sound the trumpets (Revelation 8:6).
      4. Each angel blew their trumpet one at a time. A judgment followed each time an angel blew his trumpet. These are the seven Trumpet Judgments (Revelation 8:7, 8, 10, 12, 13b; 9:1, 13, 14: 11:15).
    9. Another angel with a golden censer (Revelation 8:3).
      1. Has a golden censer, with much incense, and offered it with the prayers of all the saints (Revelation 8:3).
      2. The smoke of the incense and prayers ascended before God from the angel’s hand (Revelation 8:4).
      3. The angel took the censer, filled it with fire from the altar, and threw it to the earth. And there were noises, thunder and lightning, and an earthquake (Revelation 8:5).
    10. An angel of Woes
      1. Flying through the midst of heaven (Revelation 8:13).
      2. Saying with a loud voice, “Woe, woe, woe.”
      3. Pronouncing woes upon the earth because of the next Trumpet Judgments.
    11. Demonic “locusts” – powerful fallen angels in unusual locust-like bodies (Revelation 9:2-10).
      1. Description
        1. Described like locusts (Revelation 9:3).
        2. Given power (Revelation 9:3).
        3. Restricted permission
          1. to torment unsaved people for five months, like the torment of a scorpion sting (Revelation 9:4, 5, 10).
          2. Not permitted to harm vegetation (Revelation 9:4).
          3. Not permitted to kill people (Revelation 9:5, 6).
        4. Shape
          1. Like horses prepared for battle (Revelation 9:7).
          2. Crowns on their head like gold (Revelation 9:7).
          3. Faces like the faces of men (Revelation 9:7).
          4. Hair like women’s hair (Revelation 9:8).
          5. Teeth like lion’s teeth (Revelation 9:8).
          6. Breastplates like iron (Revelation 9:9).
          7. Wings that made the sound like horses and chariots running into battle (Revelation 9:9).
          8. Stinging tails like scorpions (Revelation 9:10).
    12. The angel of the bottomless pit (Revelation 9:11) (See notes under Satan).
      1. This angel may be a high-ranking demon (MacArthur, J. Vernon McGee).
      2. Or it may be Satan himself (Barnes, MacDonald).
    13. Four fallen angels who are bound at the great river Euphrates (Revelation 9:14-15).
      1. These are not the same four angels found in Revelation 7:1-3.
      2. These are fallen angels since they have been bound until this time.
      3. They were released according to an allotted time
        1. To kill 1/3 of all mankind.
        2. They seem to control the 200 million army of horsemen (likely demons that are currently bound in the abyss).
    14. 200 million army of horsemen (Revelation 9:16-19).
      1. Some suggest this is a 200-million-person army riding on horses from China
      2. Others suggest this is a 200-million-person army riding on horses from an Eastern coalition of nations, including China, India, etc.
      3. It is more likely a release from the Pit of 200 million demons that have been bound until this time and are released to cause carnage on the surviving humans.
        1. The description suggests this is the more likely scenario
    15. A mighty angel (Revelation 10:1-11:3). Some suggest this is Christ, but it is not likely for these reasons:
      1. He is called “another mighty angel.”
      2. “Another” means “another of the same kind” – like one of the seven angels in Revelation 8-9. If it were Christ, the Greek would read “heteros” – “another of a different kind.”
        1. The other angels were angels. If he is another angel of the same kind, then he is also an angel.
      3. Theophanies
        1. Although there were pre-incarnate appearances of Christ in the Old Testament, there are no theophanies in the New Testament.
        2. Old Testament Theophanies. The Lord appeared to:
        3. Abraham (Genesis 12:7; 17:1; 18:1-5).
        4. Hagar, who was Sarai’s maid (Genesis 16:7-14).
        5. Isaac (Genesis 26:2-5, 23-24).
        6. Jacob (Genesis 32:24-30).
        7. Moses (Genesis 3:1 – 4:17).
        8. Balaam and the donkey (Numbers 22:22-35).
        9. Joshua (Joshua 5:13-15).
        10. Gideon (Judges 6:11-24).
        11. Manoah’s wife (Judges 13:1-22).
        12. Manoah (Judges 13:11-22).
        13. Elijah (1 Kings 19:1-18).
        14. Samuel (1 Samuel 3:1-21).
        15. David (1 Chronicles 21:14-17).
        16. Gad (1 Chronicles 21:18).
        17. Ornan (1 Chronicles 21:20-21).
        18. With Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-Nego (Daniel 3:16-28).
      4. The New Testament does not refer to the Lord Jesus Christ as an Angel of the Lord.
        1. Jesus Christ is always given specific titles in Revelation (see the section on Jesus Christ).
      5. The angel made an oath to one greater than himself
        1. Jesus would not swear by another.
        2. Revelation 10:5-6, “The angel whom I saw standing on the sea and on the land raised up his hand to heaven and swore by Him who lives forever and ever, who created heaven and the things that are in it, the earth and the things that are in it, and the sea and the things that are in it, that there should be delay no longer.”
        3. Jesus would swear by Himself.
        4. “For when God made a promise to Abraham, because He could swear by no one greater, He swore by Himself” (Hebrews 6:13).
        5. The mighty angel “came down from heaven” and put his feet on the earth and sea (Revelation 10:1-2).
      6. Jesus is coming again to the Earth with His saints (1 Thessalonians 3:13; Jude 14). We refer to that as His Second Coming to the Earth.
        1. If this is Jesus, then this would be His Second Coming. But this does not fit any Biblical description of His Second Coming.
      7. The mighty angel and his work:
        1. Came down from heaven (Revelation 10:1).
        2. He is clothed with a cloud (Revelation 10:1).
        3. He has a rainbow on his head (Revelation 10:1).
        4. His face was like the sun (Revelation 10:1).
        5. His feet are like pillars of fire (Revelation 10:1).
        6. He had an open book in his hand, which is thought to be the scroll with the seven seals (Revelation 10:2).
        7. He set his right foot on the sea and his left foot on the land.
        8. His voice was like a lion’s roar with the sound of seven thunders.
        9. He swore by Him who lives forever and ever (i.e., God). that there should be no further delay (Revelation 10:5-6). Jesus would not have sworn by God but by Himself (Hebrews 6:13).
        10. This event occurs right before the sounding of the 7th Trumpet Judgment (Revelation 10:7).
        11. The same mighty angel gives John a reed – a measuring rod to measure the temple, the altar, and the number of those who worship. The outer Gentile court was not to be measured (Revelation 11:1-2).
    16. An unknown voice from heaven (Revelation 10:4, 8).
    17. Michael (the archangel) and his angels (Revelation 12:7).
      1. A war broke out in heaven (Revelation 12:7).
      2. Michael and his angels fought with the dragon (Satan) and his angels (demons) (Revelation 12:7).
      3. Satan and his angels were cast out of heaven to the earth (Revelation 12:8-13).
    18. Three angels
      1. The first angel preached the everlasting gospel to the entire world (Revelation 14:6-7).
      2. The second angel proclaimed, “Babylon is fallen, is fallen” (Revelation 14:8).
      3. A third angel proclaims judgment upon all who worship the beast and take the mark of the beast (Revelation 14:9-11).
    19. The holy angels (Revelation 14:10).
    20. Another angel who came out of the temple, testifying that the time had come for the Lord Jesus to “thrust in Your sickle and reap…for the earth is ripe” (Revelation 14:14-16).
    21. Another angel came out of the heavenly temple with a sharp sickle (Revelation 14:17).
    22. Another angel came out from the altar with power over fire (Revelation 14:18).
      1. Commanding the angel in Revelation 14:17 to reap a harvest of unbelievers to suffer the wrath of God (Revelation 14:18-20).
    23. Seven angels having the seven bowl judgments (seven plagues). (Revelation 15:1, 5-8; 16:1-17: 21:9-21; 22:1-11).
      1. They have the seven plagues (Revelation 15:6).
      2. They are clothed in pure bright linen (Revelation 15:6).
      3. They have golden bands around their chests (Revelation 15:6).
      4. They are given seven golden bowls full of the wrath of God (Revelation 15:7).
      5. They are commanded to “Go and pour out the bowls of the wrath of God on the earth” (Revelation 16:1).
      6. The bowls of wrath are poured out (Revelation 16:1-21).
        1. The first angel poured out loathsome sores on those who had the mark of the beast and worshiped his image (Revelation 16:2).
        2. The second angel poured out his bowl, turning the sea into blood. Every creature died (Revelation 16:3).
        3. The third angel poured out his bowl, turning all fresh water into blood (Revelation 16:4), and justified God for His righteous judgment (Revelation 16:5-6). Another voice from the altar echoes the righteousness of God’s judgments (Revelation 16:7).
        4. The fourth angel poured out his bowl, causing the sun to scorch men (Revelation 16:8). People blasphemed God and did not repent (Revelation 16:9).
        5. The fifth angel poured out his bowl of darkness and pain on the Antichrist’s kingdom (Revelation 16:10). People blasphemed God and did not repent (Revelation 16:11).
        6. The sixth angel poured out his bowl on the Euphrates River, and it dried up (Revelation 16:12). This causes demonic spirits to speak through Satan, the Antichrist, and the false prophet (Revelation 16:13-14). The spirits perform signs (Revelation 16:14). The spirits gather the kings of countries to Armageddon to battle against God Almighty (Revelation 16:14).
        7. The seventh angel pours out his bowl into the air (Revelation 16:17). This is followed by a loud voice from heaven saying, “It is done!” (Revelation 16:17). Noises, thunder and lightning came next (Revelation 16:18). The most severe earthquake of human history occurs (Revelation 16:18). Babylon endures the wrath of God and splits into three parts (Revelation 16:19). Cities of the nations fall (Revelation 16:19). Islands vanish (Revelation 16:20). Mountains are flattened (Revelation 16:20). One-hundred-pound hail pounds down upon mankind (Revelation 16:21). People blaspheme God and are not repentant (Revelation 16:21).
      7. One of the seven angels introduces John to the Lamb’s wife and describes her (Revelation 21:9-21).
    24. Three unclean spirits (Revelation 16:13-14) – Fallen angels (demonic spirits).
      1. They look like frogs (Revelation 16:13).
      2. One came out of the mouth of the dragon (Satan) (Revelation 16:13).
      3. One came out of the mouth of the beast of the sea (Antichrist) (Revelation 16:13).
      4. One came out of the mouth of the beast of the land (the false prophet) (Revelation 16:13).
    25. Another angel from heaven with a loud voice: “Babylon the great is fallen…” (Revelation 18:1-3).
    26. Every foul spirit (Revelation 18:2) dwelling in Babylon.
    27. A mighty angel throws a millstone into the sea, indicating the fate of the city of Babylon (Revelation 18:21).
    28. An angel standing in the sun calling all birds to gather together for the supper of the great God – to feast on the flesh of all who will be killed in the final battle (Revelation 19:17-21).
    29. An angel coming down from heaven with the key to the bottomless pit (Revelation 20:1).
      1. He takes Satan (Revelation 20:2).
      2. He binds him with a great chain (Revelation 20:1-2).
      3. He casts him into the bottomless pit (Revelation 20:3).
      4. He shuts him up (Revelation 20:3).
      5. He sets a seal on him so that for 1000 years, he cannot deceive the nations (Revelation 20:3).
    30. Twelve angels at the twelve gates of the great city, the holy Jerusalem (Revelation 21:12).
  7. The Apostle John (Revelation 1:1)
    1. His (God’s) servant John (Revelation 1:1).
      1. “Who bore witness to the word of God, and to the testimony of Jesus Christ, to all things that he saw” (Revelation 1:2).
        1. He is the disciple whom Jesus loved.
        2. He is the author of the Book of Revelation.
    2. Your brother and companion (Revelation 1:9).
      1. In the tribulation.
      2. In the kingdom.
      3. In the patience of Jesus Christ.
    3. Banished to the Isle of Patmos (Revelation 1:9).
      1. For the word of God
      2. For the testimony of Jesus Christ
    4. He was in the Spirit on the Lord’s Day when he heard the Lord speaking to him (Revelation 1:10, 12).
    5. He saw the vision of the Lord Jesus Christ (Revelation 1:12-20).
    6. He was given the charge to write down the vision (Revelation 2:1 and following).
    7. He wept much when no one was found worthy to open the scroll (Revelation 5:4).
    8. He describes everything he saw, heard, and did (throughout the book).
    9. John saw a mighty angel (Revelation 10:1).
    10. John is told to eat the Little Book (likely the scroll), and he does (Revelation 10:8-10).
    11. John is given a reed to measure
      1. The temple, the altar, and the worshipers (Revelation 11:1).
      2. He is not to measure the court of the Gentiles (Revelation 11:2).
      3. The timing of this is the last half of the Tribulation.
        1. The Gentiles will tread the city of Jerusalem for another 42 months (Revelation 11:2-3; cf. Luke 21:24).
  8. The Blessed One (Revelation 1:3)
    1. The one who “reads and those who hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written in it” (Revelation 1:3).
    2. The one who “keeps the words of the prophecy of this book” (Revelation 22:7).
  9. The Seven Churches, which are in Asia (Revelation 1:11; Chapters 2 and 3)
    1. True believers in the Churches
      1. Are loved by the Lord Jesus Christ (Revelation 1:5).
      2. Washed from our sins in His (the Lord Jesus Christ’s) blood (Revelation 1:5).
      3. He has made us kings and priests to his God and Father (Revelation 1:6).
    2. The seven lampstands (Revelation 1:12, 20; 2:1).
      1. The Church of Ephesus (Revelation 2:1-7).
      2. The Church in Smyrna (Revelation 2:8-11).
      3. The Church in Pergamos (Revelation 2:12-17).
      4. The Church in Thyatira (Revelation 2:18-29).
      5. The Church in Sardis (Revelation 3:1-6).
      6. The Church in Philadelphia (Revelation 3:7-13).
      7. The Church of the Laodiceans (Revelation 3:14-22).
    3. Characters related to the seven Churches (Revelation Chapters 2-3).
      1. Evil, lying, false apostles (Revelation 2:2).
      2. Nicolaitans, whose deeds the Lord hates (Revelation 2:6, 15).
      3. Blasphemous Jews, from the synagogue of Satan (Revelation 2:9; 3:9).
      4. Antipas, My faithful martyr (Revelation 2:13).
      5. Those who embraced the doctrine of Balaam, teaching idolatry, immorality, and license to sin (Revelation 2:14).
      6. A prophetess named Jezebel (and her children) who also taught idolatry and sexual immorality (Revelation 2:3-23).
      7. Some (“a few names”) in Sardis who did not defile their garments (i.e., With rampant immorality and idolatry) (Revelation 3:4).
  10. Earth Dwellers
    1. Revelation 3:10; 6:10; 8:13; 11:10; 12:12; 13:8, 12, 14; 14:6; 17:2, 8.
  11. Overcomers
    1. Revelation 2:7, 11, 17, 26; 3:5, 12, 21; 12:11; 21:7.
  12. 24 Elders
    1. Revelation 4:4, 10; 5:5, 6, 8, 11, 14; 7:11, 13; 11:16; 14:3; 19:4.
    2. Description
      1. There are 24 elders (Revelation 4:4).
      2. They sit on 24 Thrones (Revelation 4:4).
      3. They are clothed in white robes (Revelation 4:4).
      4. They have gold crowns on their heads (Revelation 4:4).
    3. They worship God.
      1. They fall down before Him (Revelation 4:10; 5:8, 14; 7:11).
      2. They worship Him (Revelation 4:10).
      3. They cast their crowns before Him (Revelation 4:10).
      4. The Lamb (Revelation Jesus) is in the midst of the elders (Revelation 5:6).
      5. They each have a harp (Revelation 5:8).
      6. They each have a golden bowl full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints (Revelation 5:8).
      7. They are surrounded by tens of thousands of angels worshiping God (Revelation 5:11).
      8. They worship God for destroying the great harlot – Mystery Babylon (Revelation 19:4).
    4. They teach John.
      1. One elder explains that Jesus (the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has prevailed to open the scroll (Revelation 5:5).
      2. One elder explains who the Tribulation Martyrs are (Revelation 7:13-17).
  13. Four Living Creatures
    1. Revelation 4:6-9; 5:6, 8, 11, 14; 6:1, 3, 5-7, 11; 14:3; 15:7; 19:4.
    2. Description
      1. Full of eyes front and back, around and within (Revelation 4:6, 8).
      2. Having six wings (Revelation 4:8).
        1. One like a lion (Revelation 4:7).
        2. One like a calf (Revelation 4:7).
        3. One had a face like a man (Revelation 4:7).
        4. One like a flying eagle (Revelation 4:7).
    3. They worship God.
      1. They do not rest day or night but continuously speak, saying: “Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, Who was and is and is to come!” (Revelation 4:8).
      2. They give glory, honor, and thanks to God (Revelation 4:9).
      3. They fall on their faces before the Lamb in worship (Revelation 5:8; 7).
      4. They worship God for destroying the great harlot – Mystery Babylon (Revelation 19:4).
      5. They add their “Amen” to praise to the Lamb (Revelation 5:15).
    4. Their role in the Seal Judgments.
      1. The first living creature announces the first Seal Judgment with a voice like thunder, “Come and see” (Revelation 6:1).
      2. The second living creature announces the second Seal Judgment, saying, “Come and see” (Revelation 6:3).
      3. The third living creature announces the third Seal Judgment, saying, “Come” (Revelation 6:5).
      4. The fourth living creature announces the fourth Seal Judgment, saying, “Come’ (Revelation 6:7).
    5. Their role in the Bowl Judgments.
      1. One of the four living creatures distributed the seven golden Bowl Judgments to the seven angels responsible for pouring out the Judgments 15:7).
  14. Martyrs
    1. Those in the church who were “faithful until death” (Revelation 2:10).
    2. Antipas (Revelation 2:13).
      1. Jesus said of him, “My faithful martyr, who was killed” (Revelation 2:13).
    3. Some of those killed in the second and fourth Seal Judgments (Revelation 6:4, 8).
    4. Those who are martyred for believing the word of God and for their faith in the first half of the Tribulation (Revelation 6:9).
    5. The additional martyrs (fellow servants and their brethren) who would be martyred in the second half of the Tribulation (Revelation 6:11).
    6. A great multitude which no one could number (Revelation 7:9-17).
      1. From all nations, tribes, peoples, and tongues (Revelation 7:9).
      2. They are martyrs from the Great Tribulation (Revelation 6:11, 7:13-14).
    7. Jewish believers who trusted in the Lord Jesus (they accepted Christ’s shed blood for the forgiveness of their sins) overcame Satan and were martyred (Revelation 12:11; cf. Romans 16:20).
    8. Those martyred by the woman who rides the beast:
      1. Who kills “the martyrs of Jesus.”
        1. Those killed by the woman who rides the beast, “Babylon the great, the mother of harlots and of the abominations of the earth,” who is “drunk with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus” (Revelation 17:1-6).
        2. Who kills the “prophets and saints” – “all who were slain on the earth” (Revelation 18:24).
        3. Their blood is avenged by the destruction of the great harlot, Mystery Babylon (Revelation 19:2-3).
    9. The two witnesses (Revelation 11:7).
    10. Those who refuse to worship the image of the beast are killed (Revelation 13:15; 14:12-13; 15:2-4).
      1. They sing the song of Moses and the song of the Lamb (Revelation 15:3-4).
    11. Prophets, saints, and all slain on the earth (Revelation 18:24).
      1. Their blood was found in the city of Babylon.
    12. Those believers who lived during the Great Tribulation
      1. They were beheaded (Revelation 20:4).
        1. For their witness to Jesus (Revelation 20:4).
        2. For the word of God (Revelation 20:4).
        3. They refused to worship the beast or his image (Revelation 20:4).
        4. They refused to receive his mark on their foreheads or hands (Revelation 20:4).
        5. They were brought back to life at the first resurrection (Revelation 20:5).
        6. They shall be priests of God and of Christ (Revelation 20:6).
        7. They shall reign with Him a thousand years (Revelation 20:6).
  15. 144,000 Jewish Male Witnesses (Revelation 7:3-8; 14:1-5)
    1. Description
      1. 144,000 Jewish males (Revelation 7:3-4; 14:4).
        1. 12,000 from each of the 12 tribes of Israel (Revelation 7:4-8).
        2. The tribe of Ephraim is missing.
        3. The tribe of Dan is missing (one who led in idolatry).
        4. The tribe of Levi is included (the priestly tribe that was to lead the nation in worship of God).
        5. The tribe of Joseph is included (taking the place of his son, Ephraim).
      2. They are male virgins (eunuchs) (Revelation 14:4; cf. Matthew 19:12).
      3. They are God’s Tribulation witnesses on the earth.
        1. Their appearance in Revelation 7 corresponds to the timing of the witnesses in Matthew 24:14, “And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached in all the world as a witness to all the nations, and then the end will come.”
        2. They appear before the Abomination of Desolation (Revelation 7, 14; Matthew 24:14-15).
        3. Following the “sealing of the 144,000,” there is a description of what might be the “fruit” of their labor in Revelation 7:9-11. The proximity of the events seems significant
    2. Their relationship with God
      1. They are sealed on their foreheads (Revelation 7:3-4).
        1. God the Father’s name is written on their foreheads (Revelation 14:1).
      2. “Servants of our God” (Revelation 7:3).
        1. They are saved, not just servants such as police officers or government officials.
      3. Redeemed
        1. From the earth (Revelation 14:4).
        2. From among men (Revelation 14:4).
      4. They are “not defiled with women, for they are virgins” (Revelation 14:4).
      5. They follow the Lamb wherever He goes (Revelation 14:4).
      6. They are firstfruits to God and to the Lamb (Revelation 14:4).
        1. “They are the first of the harvest of the Tribulation Period that will come into the millennium to populate the millennial earth” – Dwight Pentecost, Things to Come, pg. 300.
      7. There is no deceit in their mouth (Revelation 14:5).
        1. They did not accept the lie of the Antichrist.
      8. They are blameless – without fault before the throne of God (Revelation 14:5; cf. Jude 24-25).
      9. They cannot be harmed or killed (Revelation 9:4).
      10. They are the only ones who can sing the song the harpists played (Revelation 14:2-3).
        1. This likely means that they learned this song through their experience, much like the Jews sang a song after crossing the Red Sea and saw the Egyptians drowned (Exodus 15:1-21).
  16. Two Hundred Million Horsemen (Revelation 9:16-19)
    1. Description
      1. 200 million horsemen – confirmed number (Revelation 9:16).
      2. Those who sat on the horses had:
        1. Fiery red, hyacinth blue, and sulfur yellow breastplates (Revelation 9:17).
      3. The horses had:
        1. Heads of Lions (Revelation 9:17).
        2. Mouths that belched fire, smoke, and brimstone (which are three plagues) (Revelation 9:17).
          1. These three plagues kill 1/3 of all mankind (Revelation 9:17-18).
        3. Their power and harm are in their mouth and in their tails (Revelation 9:19).
        4. They have tails with serpent heads which do harm (Revelation 9:19-20).
      4. This is likely a demonic, not a human, military force. The context and description seem to indicate something of demonic and Satanic origin, not merely a human army.
  17. Unrepentant People
    1. Jezebel (Revelation 2:21-23).
    2. The kings of the earth, the great men, the rich men, the commanders, the mighty men, every slave, and every free man (Revelation 6:15-17).
    3. Those who were not killed by the 200 million horsemen army (Revelation 9:20-21). They did not repent of:
      1. The worship of demons.
      2. The worship of idols of gold, silver, brass, stone, and wood.
      3. Their murders.
      4. Their sorceries (drugs, addictions linked with demonic influence).
      5. Their sexual immorality.
      6. Their thefts.
    4. Those who receive the mark of the Beast (Revelation 13:16-17; 14:9-11; 16:22; 19:20-21).
    5. Those scorched with the plague of great heat (Revelation 16:9).
    6. Those who were in pain from their sores (Revelation 16:11).
    7. Anyone whose name is not found written in the Book of Life (Revelation 20:15).
    8. Those who died before the Millennium will be raised after 1000 years for judgment (Revelation 20:5).
    9. All unsaved people who have died, small and great will stand before God to be judged at the Great White Throne Judgment (Revelation 20:11-15).
    10. Those who will have their part in the Lake of Fire are: (Revelation 21:8).
      1. The cowardly.
      2. Unbelieving.
      3. Abominable (against God’s laws – probably related to those who worship the Abomination of Desolation).
      4. Murderers.
      5. Sexually Immoral (Revelation 21:8, 22:15; Romans 13:13; 1 Corinthians 6:9; Galatians 5:19).
        1. Fornicators.
        2. Adulterers.
        3. Homosexuals.
        4. Dogs (likely male prostitutes or homosexuals) (Deuteronomy 23:18).
        5. Sodomites.
        6. Sexual immorality (porneia, from which we get our word pornography in print, film, internet, etc.).
        7. Uncleanness (impurity of thought, word, and deed).
        8. Lewdness (debauchery) is an open and shameless display of sexual perversion.
        9. Lust.
      6. Sorcerers – Gnostics, Mediums, Spiritists, Magic, Necromancy.
      7. Idolaters.
      8. All liars.
    11. The GWT Judgment is an eternal death sentence.
    12. The dead are judged and cast into the Lake of Fire (Revelation 20:11-15).
    13. It is eternal death – i.e., Eternally separated from God.
  18. My Two Witnesses (Revelation 11:3)
    1. “And I will give power to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy one thousand two hundred and sixty days, clothed in sackcloth” (Revelation 11:3).
    2. Description of the men and their ministry.
      1. There are two witnesses.
        1. In the mouth of two or three witnesses, let everything be established (Revelation 11:3; cf. Deuteronomy 17:6; 19:15; Matthew 18:16; Hebrews 10:28).
      2. They are to prophesy (i.e., speak the truth) during the last half of the Tribulation for 1260 days (Revelation 11:3).
      3. They will minister in Jerusalem for 1260 days (Revelation 11:8).
      4. They are given power to use at will (Revelation 11:3, 6).
        1. Power to shut stop the rain (Revelation 11:6).
        2. Power to turn water to blood (Revelation 11:6).
        3. Power to strike the earth with plagues as often as they desire (Revelation 11:6).
      5. They may kill their enemies.
        1. Fire proceeds from their mouth and devours their enemies (Revelation 11:5).
        2. The two witnesses will kill them this way (Revelation 11:5).
      6. They wear sackcloth – a symbol of mourning (Revelation 11:3).
    3. Timing – the last 3 ½ years of the Tribulation – The Great Tribulation
      1. 42 months (Revelation 11:3).
      2. 1,260 days (Revelation 11:3).
      3. They serve during the Great Tribulation – the last half of the Tribulation for 1260 days.
      4. This immediately follows the Abomination of Desolation in the temple of God.
      5. They remain in Jerusalem at the same time as a remnant flee to the wilderness (Revelation 12:6; cf. Matthew 24:15-22).
      6. It is during this time that Satan and the Antichrist are intent on killing all Jewish people. Two-thirds of the Jewish race are killed (Zechariah 13:8-9).
    4. Their names
      1. My two witnesses (Revelation 11:3).
      2. The two olive trees (Revelation 11:4).
      3. The two lampstands standing before the God of the earth (Revelation 11:4; cf. Zechariah 4:1-14).
    5. Their Identity.
      1. Unknown – We cannot be dogmatic about who they are, as Revelation does not reveal their identities. (William Newell, Walvoord, and Zuck do not identify them).
      2. Some speculate Moses and Elijah (Dean Alford, Waler Scott, Donal Grey Barnhouse, John MacArthur, and others).
        1. Similar ministry.
        2. Elijah called down fire from heaven (2 Kings 1:10, 12).
        3. Elijah had power to call for a 3 ½ year drought (1 Kings 17:1; James 5:17, cf. Revelation 11:6).
        4. Moses turned the Nile into blood (Exodus 7:17-21).
        5. Moses called down other plagues in Egypt (Exodus 7-12).
        6. The Old Testament predicts the return of Elijah (Malachi 4:5; Matthew 11:14).
        7. The Old Testament predicts that God will raise up a prophet like Moses (Deuteronomy 18:15,18), which was Christ (John 7:40), but the Jews still expected Moses (John 1:21).
        8. Elijah and Moses appeared with Christ in His transfiguration (Matthew 17:3).
        9. Elijah never died – but was transported to heaven in a chariot (2 Kings 2:11-12).
        10. Moses was buried in an unknown location (Deuteronomy 34:5-6).
      3. Some speculate Enoch and Elijah (Seiss and Govett).
        1. This is because neither died but was translated to heaven.
      4. Some speculate Elijah and John the Baptist (J. Vernon McGee).
        1. He believes Elijah is one of the witnesses
        2. He says it is pure speculation about John the Baptist
      5. Although it might be an interesting exercise to speculate, the fact is that John does not identify them, and we should leave it that way.
    6. Their death (Revelation 11:7).
      1. They are killed by the beast that ascends out of the bottomless pit (Revelation 11:7).
      2. Their bodies lie in the street for 3 ½ days (Revelation 11:8-9).
      3. The earth-dwellers rejoice (Revelation 11:9-10).
        1. Make merry (Revelation 11:10).
        2. Send presents to one another (Revelation 11:10).
    7. Their Resurrection and Ascension (Revelation 11:11-12).
      1. They rise from the dead after 3 ½ days (Revelation 11:11).
      2. The breath of life from God enters them (Revelation 11:11).
      3. They hear a loud voice from heaven: “Come up here” (Revelation 11:12).
      4. They ascend to heaven in a cloud (Revelation 11:12).
      5. Their enemies witness the ascension (Revelation 11:12).
    8. The Events After Their Ascension.
      1. In that same hour, Jerusalem has a great earthquake (Revelation 11:13).
      2. One-tenth of the city of Jerusalem falls (Revelation 11:13).
      3. Seven thousand people are killed in the earthquake (Revelation 11:13).
      4. The rest fear God and give glory to the God of heaven (Revelation 11:13).
  19. The Gentiles
    1. Gentile nations who rule over Israel (Revelation 11:2; cf. Luke 21:24).
    2. Gentile Empires that rule over Israel.
      1. Seven heads, mountains, or kings may refer to Empires and their rulers (Revelation 13:1; 17:3, 7, 9-11).
        1. Egypt.
        2. Assyria.
        3. Babylon.
        4. Medo-Persia.
        5. Greek.
          1. “Five have fallen” – The Five Empires above.
        6. Roman.
          1. “One is” – The Roman government at the time of John’s writing.
        7. Revived Roman Empire.
          1. “The other has not yet come” – The Empire to come.
      2. An Eighth Empire Leader who emerges from the seventh (Revelation 17:11).
        1. An eighth Empire will come out of the seventh.
        2. The Antichrist, in his dominance over all others.
        3. He is the head of his own Empire, as all others have submitted to him (Revelation 17:12-14).
        4. He sets up the Abomination of Desolation (Daniel 9:27; 11:31; 12:11).
        5. He sets himself up to be God in the temple of God (2 Thessalonians 2:4).
        6. He demands worship of himself (2 Thessalonians 2:4).
      3. Four Empires (See Daniel 2 and 7).
        1. Babylon – Nebuchadnezzar.
        2. Medo-Persia – Cyrus.
        3. Greek – Alexander the Great.
        4. Roman – Emperors or Caesars.
      4. Ten Horns.
        1. Ten rulers of the Revived Roman Empire who ultimately gave their power to the Antichrist (Revelation 17:12-14; cf. Daniel 7:24).
    3. Gentiles who believe in Jesus Christ and are saved (Revelation 5:9; 7:9; 14:6-7; 18:4).
    4. Gentiles who do not believe in Jesus Christ and are condemned (Revelation 11:9; 14:6­7; 17:15; 19:18).
  20. My People (Revelation 18:4)
    1. The Lord Jesus calls His people to come out of Babylon (Revelation 18:4).
      1. The false religion that she represents.
      2. The city.
    2. They are to exit or be subject to her plagues (Revelation 18:4, 8).
    3. They will repay her double for her evil works and sinful behavior (Revelation 18:6).
    4. Using the measure of her glory and luxury, they are to measure the same to her in torment and sorrow (Revelation 18:7-8).
      1. She boasts she will sit as a queen and not see sorrow
        1. She will suffer plagues in one day (Revelation 18:8, 10, 14-19).
        2. Death.
        3. Mourning.
        4. Famine.
        5. Burned with fire.
        6. All things rich and splendid are gone (Revelation 18:14).
    5. They are to rejoice over her destruction, for God has judged her (Revelation 18:20, 19:1-6).
  21. Kings of the earth, merchants, shipmasters, ship passengers, sailors, traders, great men of the earth (Revelation 18:9-19, 23).
    1. Committed wickedness with Babylon (Revelation 18:9).
    2. Enriched themselves through her (Revelation 18:9-19).
    3. Suffered financial ruin in one day (Revelation 18:9-19).
    4. Were deceived by the sorcery of Babylon (Revelation 18:23).
  22. Holy apostles and prophets (Revelation 18:20)
    1. Called upon to rejoice over the fall and destruction of Babylon.
  23. Harpists, musicians, flutists, trumpeters, craftsmen, millers, brides, and bridegrooms (Revelation 18:21-24).
    1. Silenced and eliminated from Babylon.
  24. A Woman in Labor – A great sign appearing in heaven (Revelation 12:1-6)
    1. Identity – the Nation of Israel (not Mary, any other woman, or the church)
    2. Circumstances
      1. A great sign appeared in heaven.
        1. The sign was a woman described in this section.
        2. She is not a literal woman but is a “sign.”
        3. The sign symbolizes something or someone.
        4. The sign points to:
          1. The nation of Israel (see below).
          2. The Lord Jesus Christ, the Child who would be born to her (Revelation 12:5).
    3. Description
      1. Clothed
        1. With the sun (Revelation 12:1).
        2. With the moon under her feet (Revelation 12:1).
        3. A garland of twelve stars on her head (Revelation 12:1).
          1. The stars represent the twelve tribes of Israel. In Joseph’s dream, the 11 stars represented his 11 brothers, but the entire family represented the nation of Israel (Genesis 37:9).
          2. Therefore, the woman is the nation of Israel.
        4. Joseph is a type of Jesus.
          1. Joseph was a type of Jesus. He was despised and rejected, cast out, falsely accused, but later raised to a position of power and greatness. His family (representing the nation of Israel) bowed down to him just as predicted in his dream (Genesis 42:6).
          2. Jesus was despised and rejected by Israel, cast out, and falsely accused, but God has raised Him up, and given Him, a name above all names, and every knee shall bow down to Him (Philippians 2:10).
        5. The woman” is Israel, not Mary or the church.
    4. Actions
      1. She cried out in labor and in pain to give birth (Revelation 12:2).
      2. She bore a male Child (Revelation 21:5; cf. Isaiah 9:6).
        1. Mary was His mother (Matthew 1:18; Luke 2:5).
        2. The Child was given to Israel (Isaiah 9:6; Luke 2:34).
          1. “Unto us, a Child is born; unto us, a Son is given.”
      3. There was a threat to her Child as soon as He was born (Revelation 12:4).
        1. Herod’s actions are Satan-inspired (Matthew 2:1-23).
        2. The dragon (Satan) was ready to kill Jesus.
      4. Her child was born to be King (Revelation 12:5).
        1. David’s seed and David’s Lord
          1. Genesis 3:15; 2 Samuel 7:16; Psalm 2; 45:6-7; Isaiah 7:14, 9:6; Jeremiah 33:17.
          2. Matthew 1:6, 16; 2:2; 21:5; 27:11; 27:37.
          3. Mark 15:2, 9, 12, 18, 26, 32.
          4. Luke 1:32; 2:11; 19:38; 20:42-44; 23:2-3, 37-38.
          5. John 1:49; 12:13, 15; 18:33, 37, 39; 19:14-15, 19, 21.
          6. Acts 17:7.
          7. Romans 1:3-4; 9:5.
          8. Hebrews 1:8.
          9. 1 Timothy 1:16-17; 6:14-16.
          10. Revelation 1:5; 15:3; 17:14; 19:16.
      5. Her Child was caught up to God and His throne (Revelation 12:5).
        1. This skips over His ministry, death, and resurrection and focuses on Jesus’ ascension (Revelation 12:5; Acts 1:9-11; 2:32-36; Ephesians 4:10; Philippians 2).
      6. The woman (Israel) who gave birth to the male Child is persecuted by the dragon (Satan) (Revelation 12:13-17).
      7. God protects the woman (Israel) (Revelation 12:15-17).
        1. She is given two wings of a great eagle – indicating the great care of God for His people. This corresponds to the timing of the Abomination of Desolation (Revelation 12:6, 14; Exodus 19:4; Deuteronomy 32:9-14; Psalm 17:8; 57:1-3; Isaiah 40:31; Matthew 24:15-21; Mark 13:18; Luke 21:21).
        2. Some suggest this is air travel – and it could be, but it is more likely referring to the Lord’s personal protection of His people.
        3. The woman (Israel) is protected in the wilderness for 3 ½ years.
          1. A time, times, and half a time – 3 ½ years (Revelation 12:14).
          2. 1260 days – 3 ½ years (Revelation 12:6).
        4. The serpent (Satan) causes a flood to try to drown the woman (Revelation 12:15).
          1. This could be a literal flood.
          2. Or it could be a “flood of people” who will be consumed by the earth (cf. Numbers 26:10; Deuteronomy 11:6; Psalm 106:17).
          3. the Red Sea swallowed up Pharaoh’s army.
        5. God causes the land to split open to swallow up the waters of the flood (Revelation 12:16).
        6. God then protects her in the wilderness for the remainder of the Tribulation, and God will care for His people much like He did during the 40 years in the wilderness (Revelation 12:14).
        7. Two-thirds of the Jews are killed in the Tribulation (Matthew 24:15; Zechariah 13:8-9).
        8. The surviving remnant will be saved (Romans 11:26).
    5. The meaning of the sign.
      1. Israel was promised a Child, a Son. Jesus is the fulfillment of that prophecy, having been born in Bethlehem. It was prophesied that He would be a King. Satan motivated Herod to kill Jesus. Children under two years old were drowned, but He was unsuccessful in killing Jesus because God warned His parents to flee to Egypt. After Jesus was crucified, buried, and resurrected, He ascended to Heaven to the Father’s throne. During the Tribulation Period at the time of the Abomination of Desolation, the woman (Israel) is to flee to the wilderness, where God will preserve her for 1,260 days – 3 ½ years – during the Great Tribulation.
  25. A Great, Fiery Red Dragon (see also, Satan) (Revelation 12:3-5)
    1. Identity – Satan.
    2. Circumstances.
      1. Another sign appeared in heaven.
      2. The sign was a seven-headed dragon (Revelation 12:3).
      3. This is not a literal dragon but is a “sign.”
      4. The sign symbolizes something or someone.
      5. The sign points to:
        1. Satan (Revelation 12:3, 7-9, 12).
        2. The dragon is identified as:
          1. That serpent of old (Revelation 12:9; 20:2).
          2. The Devil (Revelation 12:9; 20:2).
          3. Satan (Revelation 12:9; 20:2).
          4. The deceiver of the world (Revelation 12:9).
          5. The accuser of our brethren (Revelation 12:10).
        3. The Revived Roman Empire empowered by Satan (Revelation 13:1).
          1. The description of Satan is given first in chapter 12. The description of the Revived Roman Empire is given in Revelation 13:1. The similarity demonstrates that Satan himself is the power behind the Antichrist and the Revived Roman Empire.
    3. Description
      1. A great, fiery red dragon (Revelation 12:3).
      2. He has seven heads (Revelation 12:3).
        1. He has seven diadems on the seven heads (Revelation 12:3).
        2. This likely represents the seven consecutive world kingdoms – Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, Rome, and the Revived Roman Empire. (see notes under “The Gentiles”).
        3. The description suggests Satan controlled these world Empires.
      3. He has ten horns (Revelation 12:3).
        1. The Ten Horns.
          1. Ten rulers of the Revived Roman Empire who ultimately gave their power to the Antichrist (Revelation 17:12-14; cf. Daniel 7:24).
          2. The dragon has the ten horns in chapter 12, proving that Satan controls the Revived Roman Empire.
          3. It also appears that the Dragon (Satan) stands on the sand of the sea – a place where he calls up Gentile nations to do his bidding.
      4. He has a tail (Revelation 12:4).
        1. With his tail, he sweeps 1/3 of the angels out of heaven with him (Revelation 12:4).
      5. A demonic spirit that looks like a frog comes out of his mouth. It performs signs to persuade kings to gather nations to Armageddon to war against God Almighty (Revelation 16:13-14).
    4. Actions
      1. He was expelled from heaven as a permanent dwelling place (Ezekiel 28:12-17; Isaiah 14:12-15).
      2. He currently has access to heaven as an accuser of the brethren (Revelation 12:10; Job 1, 2).
      3. After starting a battle with Gabriel and his angels, Satan used his tail to draw a third of the stars (now fallen angels or demons) of heaven and threw them to the earth (Revelation 12:4). At this point in Revelation, Satan is permanently cast out of heaven (see comments under “Satan”).
        1. The stars are angelic beings (Revelation 9:1; 12:4; 12:7-8; cf. Job 38:7).
        2. Satan was defeated at the cross, yet his sentence has not yet been carried out.
        3. He will endure a 1,000-year imprisonment at the beginning of the Millennium (Revelation 20:1-4).
        4. His final and eternal sentence will be at the end of the Millennium (Revelation 20:2-4, 7-10).
      4. He stood before the woman who was ready to give birth (Revelation 12:4).
        1. To devour her Child as soon as it was born (Revelation 12:4; cf. Matthew 2:1-23).
          1. The Child was a male Child (Revelation 12:5).
          2. He was to rule the nations with a rod of iron.
          3. This Child is the Lord Jesus Christ (Revelation 12:5; Psalm 2:9; Revelation 2:27; 19:15).
          4. Her Child was caught up to God and His throne (Revelation 12:5). This speaks of Jesus’ ascension (Revelation 12:5; Acts 1:9-11; 2:32-36; Ephesians 4:10).
      5. Satan has tried to overthrow God’s plans repeatedly.
        1. The Garden of Eden (Genesis 3:1-24).
        2. Cain slaying Abel (1 John 3:12).
        3. Demonic union with women (Genesis 6:1-4).
        4. Moses in Egypt (Exodus 1:16, 22; 2:1-3).
        5. The influence of pagan nations to destroy them.
        6. Saul’s attempted murder of David (1 Samuel 19:1-2, 11-17; 20:33).
        7. Haman’s attempted murder of the Jewish people (Esther 3:6-15; 7:1-6).
        8. The fall of Israel to idolatry, where they murdered their own children.
        9. Herod’s attempt to kill Jesus (Matthew 2:13,16).
        10. Satan’s direct attempts to kill Jesus (Matthew 4:1-11).
        11. The people of Nazareth (Luke 4:28-30).
        12. Other attempts (John 7:30; 8:20).
        13. Even the cross was not a defeat. Jesus defeated him at the cross (Colossians 2:15).
        14. Israel will endure to the end for salvation (Romans 11:26).
      6. When he is cast out of heaven, he persecutes the woman (Israel) who gave birth to the male Child (Revelation 12:13).
        1. He persecutes the woman (Israel) (Revelation 12:13).
        2. He tries to drown the Jews who flee to the wilderness with a flood (Revelation 12:15).
        3. God spares the woman (Israel) in the wilderness (Revelation 12:14, 16).
      7. The dragon (Satan) is so enraged by God’s protection of the woman that he makes war with those who are left behind in Israel (Revelation 12:17).
        1. This is likely a faithful remnant.
        2. This certainly includes the 144,000 sealed Jewish male witnesses (Revelation 12:17; 13:15; 14:4-5, 12-13).
        3. One-third of the Jews will be saved (Zechariah 13:8-9).
  26. Satan (See also A Great, Fiery Red Dragon)
    1. Satan’s synagogue (i.e., Congregation) is a blaspheming Jewish group at Smyrna (Revelation 2:9; 3:9).
    2. The Devil tests (afflicts) the church (Revelation 2:10).
    3. Satan’s throne and dwelling place was in Pergamos (Revelation 2:13).
    4. A star fallen from heaven to the earth (Revelation 9:1; cf. Job 38:7; Isaiah 14:12-17; Luke 10:18; Revelation 12:7-9). Most commentators identify this as Satan – some suggest it is another fallen angel. I believe it is Satan based on the other references above).
      1. The Lord gives Satan the key to the bottomless pit (the abyss – the home of demons (Luke 8:31; Revelation 9:1, 1:18).
      2. He is called “the angel of the bottomless pit” (Revelation 9:11).
        1. In Hebrew – Abaddon (Destruction).
        2. In Greek – Apollyon (Destroyer).
    5. Cast out of heaven to the earth (same as above) but with more detail (Revelation 12:7-9).
      1. A war broke out in heaven (Revelation 12:7).
        1. Michael, the archangel, and his angels fought against Satan and his angels (Revelation 12:7).
        2. Satan lost the battle (Revelation 12:8).
      2. Banned from access to heaven (Revelation 12:8; cf. Luke 10:18; John 12:31).
      3. He is filled with great wrath because he knows his time is short (Revelation 12:12).
    6. Some of Satan’s names:
      1. The great dragon (Revelation 12:9; 20:2).
      2. That serpent of old (Revelation 12:9, 14, 15; 20:2; cf. Genesis 3:1; 4:2; 2 Corinthians 11:3; Revelation 12:9, 15).
      3. The Devil (Revelation 12:9; 20:2; cf. John 8:44).
      4. Satan (Revelation 12:9; 20:2).
      5. The one who deceives the whole world (Revelation 12:9; 20:3, 8, 10; cf. Genesis 3:1-13; John 8:44; 2 Corinthians 11:3).
      6. The accuser of our brethren (Revelation 12:10).
    7. He is bound for 1,000 years in the bottomless pit (Revelation 20:2).
    8. He is temporarily released (Revelation 20:7).
    9. He is cast into the Lake of Fire to be tormented forever and ever (Revelation 20:10).
  27. The Antichrist (See also The Beast From the Sea)
    1. Description
      1. He sat on a white horse (Revelation 6:2).
        1. He had a bow (Revelation 6:2). This is not war but a “peaceful” takeover, possibly under the threat of war. This is a brief time of false peace (cf. 1 Thessalonians 5:3).
        2. A crown was given to him (Revelation 6:2) – a victor’s crown.
        3. He went out conquering and to conquer (Revelation 6:2) – a world empire – the Revived Roman Empire (Daniel 9:26).
      2. He signs a peace treaty with Israel for seven years (Daniel 9:27), which he breaks in the middle of the Tribulation.
      3. He will deceive the nations (Matthew 24:5).
  28. The Beast from the Sea (Revelation 13:1-10) (Antichrist and the Revived Roman Empire).
    1. This Beast is from the sea (Revelation 13:1).
      1. The Beast of the Sea is the Revived Roman Empire.
      2. The Beast of the Sea is also the ruler of the RRE – the Antichrist.
      3. The Sea represents Gentile nations.
      4. Therefore, it is suggested that the Antichrist may be a Gentile ruler, an Emperor over the Revived Roman Empire – the political head of the world government.
    2. This beast from the sea is the final Gentile Empire – the Revived Roman Empire – prophesied by Daniel. Daniel uses two illustrations of world Empires. The first is a great image (Daniel 2). The second is four beasts that arise out of the sea (Daniel 7).
      1. The Gentile nations are described as a great image (Daniel 2:31-45). The nations that would rule over Israel:
        1. Babylon.
          1. Head of Gold (Daniel 2:31-32).
          2. Ruler – Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 2:36-38).
        2. Medes and Persians.
          1. Chest and arms of silver (Daniel 2:32, 39).
          2. The Medes and Persians conquered Babylon and lasted longer, but it was an inferior kingdom, as silver compared to gold.
          3. Ruler – Cyrus.
        3. The Greek Empire.
          1. Belly and thighs of bronze (Daniel 2:32, 39).
          2. Ruler – Alexander the Great.
        4. The Roman Empire.
          1. Legs of iron (Daniel 2:33, 40).
          2. Rulers – the Emperors or Caesars.
        5. The Revived Roman Empire.
          1. Feet of iron mixed with clay (Daniel 2:33, 41-43).
        6. The Kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ.
          1. The Lord defeats the Gentile nations and sets up His Kingdom (Daniel 2:34-35).
          2. The Kingdom is an everlasting kingdom (Daniel 2:44-45).
      2. The Gentile Empires are described as four beasts (Daniel 7:1-28) coming up out of the sea, representing four kings and four kingdoms.
        1. A lion with eagle’s wings (Daniel 7:4, 17-18).
          1. Babylon.
        2. A bear with three ribs in its mouth (Daniel 7:5, 17-18).
          1. Medes and Persians.
        3. A leopard with four wings and four heads (Daniel 7:6, 17-18).
          1. Greek.
        4. A strong beast with iron teeth (Daniel 7:7-8, 17-27).
          1. Roman.
          2. The ten horns are of the Revived Roman Empire.
          3. The ten horns are ten kings (Revelation 17:12; Daniel 7:24).
          4. It is a divided kingdom with some strong kings and some weak (Daniel 2:42).
          5. A little horn (the Antichrist) that plucked out three horns. It had eyes like a man’s eyes. It had a mouth speaking pompous words.
          6. The final kingdom will be destroyed and conquered by the Lord Jesus Christ, and the kingdom shall be given to the saints of the Most High (Daniel 7:27).
    3. The Beast out of the sea (Revelation 13:1-9).
      1. It is a ruler – the Antichrist.
      2. The Revived Roman Empire (RRE) is the ruler’s Empire or Kingdom.
        1. It has seven heads, which refer to the seven successive world empires – Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, Rome, and the Revived Roman Empire.
          1. The heads must refer to Gentile world rulers.
          2. They are called heads (Revelation 13:1; 17:3, 7).
          3. They are called mountains (Revelation 17:9).
          4. This cannot be a geographical location but refers to heads of state.
          5. They are called kings (Revelation 17:10).
        2. Five Empires have fallen – the first five: Egypt, Assyria, Baylon, Medo-Persia, and Greece (Revelation 17:9).
          1. One is – Rome at the time of John’s writing (Revelation 17:9).
          2. One is not yet come – the Revived Roman Empire (Revelation 17:9).
          3. It has ten horns with crowns.
          4. The RRE is initially a ten-nation confederacy mixed with ten kings – some are weak, and some are strong.
          5. The Antichrist will be the ruler of the RRE.
      3. Satan empowers its ruler and the RRE.
        1. The Beast is described similarly to the Dragon (Satan) (Revelation 12:3; 13:1; 17:3).
        2. The Beast is like a combination of beasts from the Daniel 7 prophecy (Revelation 13:1-2).
        3. The Beast possesses power, a throne, and great authority directly from Satan (Revelation 13:2).
        4. One of the heads of this ten-nation confederacy is mortally wounded. This is the Antichrist. His death and resurrection are faked. Satan deceives the world into thinking that the Antichrist is dead and has risen again (Revelation 13:3).
          1. This event causes the world to follow the Antichrist (Revelation 13:4).
          2. The world worships the dragon (Satan) (Revelation 13:4).
          3. The world worships the beast (the Antichrist) (Revelation 13:4).
      4. Its ruler is the head of the Ten-Toe Kingdom of Iron and Clay from Daniel’s prophecy.
        1. The Revived Roman Empire.
          1. Feet of iron mixed with clay (Daniel 2:33, 41-43).
      5. He is the Little Horn speaking pompous words from the strong beast with ten horns from Daniel’s prophecy.
        1. A strong beast with iron teeth (Daniel 7:7-8, 17-27; Revelation 13:3; 17:3, 7).
          1. The Little Horn reigns for 42 months (Daniel 7:25, Revelation 13:5).
      6. He blasphemes God, the tabernacle, and those who dwell in heaven (Revelation 13:6).
      7. He goes to war against the saints and overcomes them (Revelation 13:7).
        1. This must be a time of great martyrdom.
      8. He has a worldwide rule (Revelation 13:7).
      9. The world of unbelievers worships the Antichrist (Revelation 13:8).
      10. A demonic spirit that looks like a frog comes out of his mouth. It performs signs to persuade kings to gather nations to Armageddon to war against God Almighty (Revelation 16:13-14).
  29. The Beast from the Earth (Land) (Revelation 13:11-18)
    1. This Beast is from the earth or land (Revelation 13:11).
      1. He is a person (Revelation 20:10).
      2. The Beast of the Land is the False Prophet (Revelation 13:11; 16:13; 19:20, 20:10).
        1. The Land often refers to Israel and may suggest a Jewish False Prophet. This is an area of much discussion among commentators.
        2. Some believe that the False Prophet may be Jewish, while others believe He is a Gentile. In either case, he is the head of the one world religion – the worship of the Antichrist and, ultimately, Satan, who inspires both the Antichrist and the False Prophet.
    2. The beast from the earth is described.
      1. He came up out of the earth (Revelation 13:11).
      2. He has two horns like a lamb (Revelation 13:11).
        1. He will be like a wolf in sheep’s clothing. He comes across as gentle as a lamb but inwardly is like a ravenous wolf (Matthew 7:15).
      3. He speaks like a dragon (Revelation 13:11).
        1. Satan controls him.
        2. A demonic spirit that looks like a frog comes out of his mouth. It performs signs to persuade kings to gather nations to Armageddon to war against God Almighty (Revelation 16:13-14).
      4. His authority is delegated from the Beast from the Sea (Antichrist) (Revelation 13:12).
        1. But he exercises the same power (Revelation 13:12)
        2. He directs people to worship the Antichrist (Revelation 13:12).
          1. He emphasizes the “resurrection” of the Antichrist (Revelation 13:12).
          2. He is part of the “unholy trinity” of Satan, the Antichrist, and the False Prophet.
        3. He can perform miracles (like the Egyptian magicians) (Revelation 13:13).
        4. He is a deceiver (Revelation 13:14).
        5. He sets up an idol of the Antichrist in the Temple (Revelation 13:14; cf. Daniel 11:36-39; Matthew 24:24; 2 Thessalonians 2:3-10).
        6. He makes the idol animated with breath and the ability to speak (Revelation 13:15).
        7. He has the authority to kill all who do not worship the Antichrist or his image (Revelation 13:15; cf. Daniel 3:6; Revelation 6:9-11; 7:13-14).
          1. 2/3 of all Jews will be killed (Zechariah 13:8-9).
        8. He forces all people to accept the Mark of the Beast – 666 – on their right hand or forehead (Revelation 13:16-18).
          1. Without the mark, people are banned from “one-world commerce.”
          2. Those who worship the beast and take the mark of the beast shall be cast into the Lake of Fire forever (Revelation 14:9-11).
        9. He is ultimately cast into the Lake of Fire with Satan and the Antichrist (Revelation 20:10).
    3. The False Prophet (in charge of the one-world religious system) is controlled by the Antichrist (the head of the one-world government and one-world commercial system) during the last 3 ½ years of the Tribulation.
  30. The Woman Who Rides the Beast (Revelation 17:1-18)
    1. The Woman is “Mystery Babylon” (Revelation 17:1-18).
      1. The Woman is introduced to John by one of the seven angels of the Bowl Judgments (Revelation 17:1).
      2. The Woman represents a one-world religious system. In Chapter 17, the woman, called Babylon, represents the ecclesiastical or religion of the first part of the Tribulation. This is likely the apostate church left behind at the Rapture.
      3. The “church” that remains after the Rapture is a false church filled with unbelievers, idolaters, and false professors. These are people who never trusted Jesus Christ as their Savior.
        1. Although they may have attended church, they were never saved.
        2. It is the apostate Christendom, both Protestant and Catholic.
        3. It will include all cults and false teachers.
        4. It is a worldwide ecumenical religion that may even include other religious groups outside of “Christianity.”
    2. The Woman is described.
      1. She is called “the great harlot” (Revelation 17:1, 5, 15; 19:2).
        1. She is a counterfeit of the true church.
        2. The true church is the Bride of Christ (Revelation 19:7-9; cf. 1 Corinthians 11:2; Ephesians 5:22-27).
        3. The false church is called “the great harlot” (Revelation 17:1, 5, 15; 19:2).
        4. It is likely that this religious harlot embraces all so-called “faiths.”
      2. She sits on many waters (Revelation 17:1).
        1. Waters, in this verse, refers to her authority over the “peoples, multitudes, nations, and tongues (Revelation 17:1; 13:7; 18:15).
        2. She has worldwide religious control.
      3. The kings of the earth have committed fornication with her (17:2).
        1. Sexual immorality is commonly practiced within false religions and appears to be the case here, too (Revelation 17:2; 18:3, 9).
          1. Consider the sexual religious scandals of history.
          2. Consider the abuses of the Catholic Church.
          3. Consider the perversion of Israel’s false worship in history.
        2. Spiritual unfaithfulness to the Lord Jesus Christ. She claims to represent the things of God, but she prostitutes herself in the world’s politics, commercialism, and sin to compromise the kings of the nations, and she is unfaithful to the Lord.
        3. She seduces nations to follow her idolatrous false religion. Babylon was founded by Nimrod (Genesis 10:9). The tower was man’s attempt to reach God by his own efforts (Genesis 11:1-4). God confused the language and scattered the people throughout the world (Genesis 11:5-9). But this religion of idolatry and works has continued through the centuries openly and in a mystery form.
        4. She intoxicates the inhabitants of the earth who embrace her false religion of idolatry, works, immorality, and passion (Revelation 17:2; cf. Jeremiah 51:7). People became rich by her wealth (Revelation 18:19; cf. Ezekiel 16:31-34).
      4. She was riding a scarlet beast (Revelation 17:3).
        1. The scarlet beast is the Beast out of the Sea (Revelation 13:1-10).
          1. This is the Antichrist with the same description (Revelation 13:1) and controlled by Satan (Revelation 12:3).
          2. This suggests that she is the rider and controls the Antichrist and his kingdom for the first 3 ½ years.
        2. The beast was full of names of blasphemy (Revelation 17:3; 13:1).
          1. He will eventually take on the names of God and set himself up as if he is God (Revelation 17:3; cf. Daniel 7:25; 11:36).
        3. The beast had seven heads (later called mountains and kings) (Revelation 17:3, 7, 9-10; cf. 13:1).
          1. Many commentators suggest this is Rome, which is built on seven hills, and that the false religion at the end is Roman Catholicism.
          2. However, it seems that this is not a geographical location (such as Rome built on seven hills), but it is the worldwide religion that dominates the Revived Roman Empire and the Antichrist for the first 3 ½ years of the Tribulation Period.
        4. The beast had ten horns (also called kings) (17:3, 12-13; 13:1).
      5. She was adorned:
        1. Purple and scarlet – royalty, prosperity, nobility (some suggest – at the price of blood).
        2. Gold, precious stones and pearls – extremely wealthy
        3. She mixes religion and merchandizing – a religion mixed with commerce – a religious business (Revelation 17:4; 18:9-19). She profits from marketing and selling (Revelation 18:9-19).
          1. Gold
          2. Silver
          3. Precious stones and pearls
          4. Fine linen, purple, silk, and scarlet
          5. Citron wood (likely scented wood for sacrifices).
          6. Ivory objects (likely idols).
          7. Precious wood objects (likely idols).
          8. Bronze and iron objects (likely idols).
          9. Marble objects (likely idols).
          10. Cinnamon, spice, incense, perfume, and frankincense (likely used in fragrant sacrifices to the idols).
          11. Wine, olive oil, fine flour, and wheat (items that are also used in sacrifices to idols, but also food).
          12. Cattle, sheep, horses.
          13. Chariots.
          14. Slaves, human trafficking (bodies and souls of people).
          15. All things luxurious and splendid.
      6. She had a golden cup (or chalice) filled with abominations and filthiness of her fornication (Revelation 17:4; cf. Jeremiah 51:7).
      7. Ritualistic churches are filled with ornate displays of idolatry (the word abominations is used for idolatry).
      8. Visit any Catholic mission or church, and many other churches, and they are filled with idolatry (abominations).
      9. The hidden and secret sins will be “piled up as high as heaven” (Revelation 18:5).
    3. On her forehead was this name (a MYSTERY).
      2. Including the word “mystery” means that God reveals something previously hidden. Just as the true church was a mystery, so this false religion was a mystery until now.
      3. The ancient city of Babylon was not hidden, nor were its sins. Therefore, the Babylon in this verse cannot refer to the city of Babylon in Iraq (although that city may still be rebuilt).
      4. What is revealed is that Babylon the Great is a religious system from which all spiritual adultery proceeds. She is the Mother of all harlots.
        1. She is great in the sense of her worldwide reach.
        2. She is the source of all religious evil.
          1. She has produced an offspring of harlots.
          2. Every religious cult is a religious harlot.
          3. Every false teacher is a religious harlot.
          4. There are Jewish and non-Jewish blasphemers who are religious harlots.
          5. Those who oppose God are religious harlots.
          6. Those who are not faithful to the Lord (the mystery of lawlessness – 2 Thessalonians 2:7) are religious harlots.
          7. Those who have “pleasure in unrighteousness” (2 Thessalonians 2:12) are religious harlots.
          8. The harlotry (actual immorality is often associated with false religion, and this may include both physical immorality as well as spiritual perversion).
        3. She is the “Mother” of all idolatry (abominations).
        4. She was drunk with the blood of the saints (martyrs throughout history) (Revelation 17:6).
          1. She is guilty of killing saints throughout history – both OT and NT believers.
        5. She was drunk with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus (Tribulation martyrs) (Revelation 17:6).
          1. She is guilty of killing the Tribulation saints, too.
      5. The Mystery revealed.
        1. The woman is riding the Beast (Revelation 17:7).
          1. A rider controls the beast upon which she rides
          2. The harlot false religion initially controls the beast of the sea
          3. In other words, the false religion initially controls the Antichrist and the Revived Roman Empire, but that will change
          4. The Harlot Woman is hated by the ten kings of the RRE (Revelation 17:16).
          5. Babylon the Great is overthrown (Revelation 18:8).
          6. The Harlot religion is overthrown (Revelation 17:12-13).
          7. The ten kings give their kingdoms to the Antichrist (Revelation 17:17).
          8. The Antichrist breaks the peace treaty with Israel (Daniel 9:27).
          9. He enters the temple and sets up an idol of himself.
          10. This is the Abomination of Desolation (Daniel 12:11).
          11. He demands to be worshiped as God (2 Thessalonians 2:4).
          12. He controls all commerce worldwide (Revelation 13:17).
          13. All must take the mark of the beast – 666 (Revelation 13:16-18).
          14. Intense persecution of the Jews – 2/3 are killed (Matthew 24:15-22; Zechariah 13:8-9).
        2. The Beast (Revelation 17:7; 13:1-9).
          1. It is described in the same way as the Beast out of the Sea, so it must be the same beast.
          2. He heads the Revived Roman Empire –the Antichrist.
          3. The Beast Out of the Sea describes both a Kingdom (the Revived Roman Empire – a ten-nation confederacy) and the ruler of that Kingdom (the Antichrist).
          4. The Beast is also described in the same way as the Dragon (Satan) (Revelation 12:3; 13:1-2; 17:3).
          5. The Beast possesses power, a throne, and great authority directly from Satan (Revelation 13:2-4).
      6. The “Death and Resurrection” of the Antichrist. One of the heads of this ten-nation confederacy is mortally wounded. This is the Antichrist, and he is “resurrected from the dead.” But it’s not true. It’s a satanic deception (Revelation 13:3; 17:8). But it is also true that his empire is revived.
        1. Was.
          1. The Antichrist existed.
          2. The Roman Empire existed.
        2. Is Not.
          1. The Antichrist is struck with a mortal wound (Revelation 13:3), and his death and resurrection are faked.
          2. The Roman Empire ceased to exist but will be revived in the end times.
        3. Will ascend out of the Abyss.
          1. The Antichrist will rise from the Abyss in the sense that he is possessed by Satan, who is from the Abyss.
          2. The Revived Roman Empire is back in power in a diabolical form.
        4. Will go to perdition.
          1. The Antichrist and the False Prophet are cast into the Lake of Fire.
          2. The Empire and all connected with it face the same demise.
          3. Satan is also cast into the Lake of Fire.
        5. This faked death and resurrection event causes the world to follow the Antichrist (Revelation 13:4).
        6. The world worships the dragon (Satan) (Revelation 13:4).
        7. The “Earth-dwellers’” Amazement At The Beast (Revelation 13).
          1. That was.
          2. And Is Not.
          3. And Yet Is – This must refer to the person – the Antichrist’s deception of a death and resurrection.
    4. The seven heads of the beast (Revelation 17:3, 9).
      1. The seven mountains on which the woman sits are not a geographical location – they are called seven heads (Revelation 17:9).
      2. The mountains or heads represent seven kings (Revelation 17:10; 13:1-9).
        1. Some suggest that the seven kings are kings of the Roman Empire. That may be possible.
        2. Others suggest that the seven kings are seven world kingdoms or seven imperial governments spanning world history, including Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Rome. At the time of the writing of the Book of Revelation (see under The Gentiles):
          1. Five kingdoms had fallen – Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, and Greece.
          2. One is – Rome was still in power at John’s writing
          3. The other has not yet come – the Revived Roman Empire. It will continue for 3 ½ years. Out of it shall come the Kingdom of the Antichrist.
      3. An eighth kingdom or king will come (Revelation 17:11).
        1. It is the Antichrist’s kingdom.
        2. It will come out of the seventh, out of the Revived Roman Empire.
        3. And (he) is going to perdition – He will be cast into the Lake of Fire.
      4. The Ten Horns – their relationship with the Antichrist (Revelation 17:12-14).
        1. In the RRE, there are ten kings – no kingdom as of yet (in John’s Day) (Revelation 17:12).
        2. They will briefly make up the RRE with the Antichrist (Revelation 17:12).
        3. They are united (Revelation 17:13).
        4. They give their power and authority to the Antichrist (Revelation 17:13).
        5. They will fight against the Lamb – Jesus Christ (Revelation 17:14).
        6. The Lamb will defeat them (Revelation 17:14).
          1. Who is King of kings and Lord of lords.
          2. He will have the chosen and faithful – ie. Believers with Him. This refers to His coming to reign.
      5. The Waters Where the Harlot Sits (Revelation 17:15).
        1. They are peoples, multitudes, nations, and tongues –a religion and spiritual influence worldwide.
      6. The Ten Horns – their relationship with the Woman (Revelation 17:16-17).
        1. They hate the harlot who controls the Antichrist and the RRE – the worldwide religion (Revelation 17:16).
        2. In an enormous power play, they make her desolate and naked – strip her of all her power, riches, etc. They overthrow the world religion to worship the Antichrist (Revelation 17:16-17).
          1. But this wicked RRE is actually fulfilling God’s purposes (Revelation 17:17).
        3. Eat her flesh and burn her with fire – speaks of the total destruction of the woman who represents the world’s religious system
        4. The RRE will overthrow the religious authority to turn over the kingdom to the Antichrist. The Antichrist will form a new worldwide worship of himself (Revelation 13:4-8).
        5. The ten kings willingly subject themselves and their people to the Antichrist, fulfilling God’s purpose of destruction in the end.
      7. The Woman (Revelation 17:18).
        1. The woman is that great city which reigns over the kings of the earth. In the context of chapter 17, it seems that the “city” refers to both the worldwide reign of the false religion – Mystery Babylon and its city headquarters. Commentators suggest several potential cities that could be the worldwide headquarters of the Mystery Babylon religion, and it is suggested that it is:
        2. Babylon.
          1. It is called Babylon (Revelation 18:2).
          2. It is called the great city, Babylon (Revelation 18:10, 21).
          3. Jeremiah 51:1-58.
          4. Isaiah 47:1-15.
          5. Revelation 18:1-24.
        3. Rome.
          1. This is the central city of the original Roman Empire.
          2. Some believe the Catholic church, currently based in Rome, is the city headquarters of the Mystery Babylon.
        4. Jerusalem.
          1. Some believe Jerusalem is the religious capital.
      8. The destruction of the Babylon Harlot religion probably occurs in the middle of the Tribulation (Daniel 9:27; Matthew 24:15).
      9. The Antichrist takes center stage and demands worship of himself (Daniel 11:36-38; 2 Thessalonians 2:4; Revelation 13:8, 15).


Chapters 17 and 18 reveal a Mystery. A mystery was previously hidden but is now revealed by God. We could not know the mystery apart from God revealing it to us.

In chapters 2-3, John writes to the churches.

Between chapters 3 and 4, we have the Rapture (1 Thessalonians 4:13-18).

The true church is taken home to be with the Lord (1 Thessalonians 5:9; Titus 2:13).

But there will be a lot of religious people left behind.

All the false religions are left behind.

Satan will deceive the world and bring together the world’s largest ecumenical movement. He will form a one-world religion under his control. And somehow, he will be able to unite Christianity (the Apostate church), Catholicism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Spiritism, Judaism, and every cult and ism that remains behind.

Not only will this one-world religion control the people of the world, but it will also control its political, social, economic, religious, and commercial aspects.

The Bible calls this religious monstrosity “a harlot.”

  • The woman is a spiritual harlot – a false religion controlling the world – the greatest ecumenical movement ever.
  • She has vast wealth and controls commerce.

For the first 3 ½ years, this system will have worldwide control, with Satan as the mastermind behind it.

Chapter 17 deals with the false religious system.

Chapter 18 deals with the political and commercial aspects of the world system.